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برق و الکترونیک - لغت 504

لغت 504

تاریخ:پنجشنبه 13 بهمن 1390-05:21 ب.ظ

Lesson 1
1-    Abandon
1.رها کردن،دست کشیدن،ترک کردن
a- When Roy abandoned his family, the police went looking for him.
b- The soldier could not abandon his friends who were hurt in battle.
c- Because Rose was poor, she had to abandon her idea of going to college.
۱- ترک کردن - دست کشیدن
2- keen
a- The butcher's keen knife cut through the meat.
b- My dog has a keen sense of smell.
c- Bill's keen mind pleased all his teachers.
۲- تیز- مشتاق- قوی
3- jealous
a- A detective was hired by the  jealous widow to find the boyfriend who had abandoned her.
b- Although my neighbor just bought a new car. I am not jealous of him.
c- Being jealous, Mona would not let her boyfriend dance with any of cheerleaders.
۳- حسود
4- tact
a- My aunt never hurts anyone's feeling because she always uses tact.
b- By the use of tact, Janet was able to calm her jealous husband.
c- Your friends will admire you if you use tact and thoughtfulness.
۴- تدبیر
5- oath
a- The president will take the oath of office tomorrow.
b- In court, the witness took an oath that he would tell whole truth.
c- When Terry discovered that he had been abandoned he let out an angry oath.
۵- سوگند- دشنام
6- vacant
a- Someone is planning to build a house on that vacant lot.
b- I put my coat on the vacant seat.
c- When the landlord broke in, he found that apartment vacant.
۶- خالی
7- hardship
a- The fighter had to face many hardships before he became champion.
b- Abe Lincoln was able to overcome one hardship after another.
c- On account of hardship, Bert was let out of the army to take care of his sick mother.
۷- سختی- مشکلات
8- gallant
a- The pilot swore a gallant oath to save his buddy.
b- Many gallant knights entered the contest to win the princess.
c- Ed is so gallant that he always gives up his subway seat to a woman.
۸- شجاع- برای زنان احترام قائل شدن
9- data
a- The data about the bank robbery were given to the F.B.I.
b- After studying the data, we were able to finish our report.
c- Unless you are given all the data, you cannot do the math problem.
۹- شواهد- اطلاعات- داده ها
10- unaccustomed
a- Coming from Alaska, Claude was unaccustomed to Florida's heat.
b- The king was unaccustomed to having people disobey him.
c- Unaccustomed as he was to exercise, Vic quickly became tired.
۱۰- به چیزی عادت نداشتن
11- bachelor
a- My brother took an oath to remain a bachelor.
b- In the movie, the married man was mistaken for a bachelor.
c- Before the wedding, all his bachelor friend had a party.
۱۱- مرد مجرد
12- qualify
a- I am trying to qualify for the job that is now vacant.
b- Since Pauline can't carry a tune, she is sure that she will never qualify for the Girl's Chorus.
c- You have to be taller than 5'5" to qualify as a policeman in our town.
۱۲- صلاحیت داشتن- واجد شرایط بودن
Lesson 2
1- Corpse
a- When given all the data on the corpse, Colombo  was able to solve the murder.
b- The corpse was laid to rest in the vacant coffin.
c- An oath of revenge was sworn over the corpse by his relatives.
۱- جسد- جنازه- مرده
2- Conceal
a- Tries could not conceal his love for Gloria.
B- Count Dracula concealed the corpse in the castle.
c- The money was so cleverly concealed that we were forced to abandon our search for it.
۲- پنهان کردن
3- dismal
a- When the weather is so dismal, I sometimes stay in bed all day.
b- I am unaccustomed to this dismal climate.
c- As the dismal reports of the election came in, the senator's friends tactfully made no mention of them.
۳- دلگیر -گرفته-مایوس کننده
4- Frigid
a- It was a great hardship for the men to live through the frigid winter at Valley Forge.
b- The jealous bachelor was treated in a frigid manner by his girlfriend.
c- Inside the butcher's freezer the temperature was frigid.
۴- خیلی سرد
5- Inhabit
a- Eskimos inhabit the frigid part of Alaska.
b- Because Sidney qualified, he was allowed to inhabit the vacant apartment.
c- Many crimes are committed each year against those who inhabit the slum area of our city.
۵- ساکن شدن در- افامت داشتن در
6- numb
a- My fingers quickly became numb in the frigid room.
b- A numb feeling came over Mr. Massey as he read the telegram.
c- When the nurse stuck a pin in my numb leg, I felt nothing .
۶- بی حس
7- peril
a- The hunter was abandoned by the natives when he described the peril that lay ahead of them.
b- There is great peril in trying to climb the mountain.
c- Our library is filled with stories of perilous adventures.
۷- خطر
8- recline
a- Richard likes to recline in front of the television set.
b- After reclining on her right arm for an hour Maxine found that is had became numb .
c- My dog's greatest pleasure is to recline by the warm fireplace.
۸- دراز کشیدن -لم دادن
9- shriek
a- The maid shrieked when she discovered the corpse.
b- With a loud shriek, Ronald fled from the room.
c- Facing the peril of the waterfall, the boatman let out a terrible shriek.
۹- جیغ زدن
10- sinister
a- The sinister plot to cheat the widow was uncovered by the police.
b- When the bank guard spied the sinister-looking customer, he drew his gun.
c- I was frightened by the sinister shadow at the bottom of the stairs.
۱۰- پلید- وحشتناک-شیطانی
11- tempt
a- A banana split can tempt me to break my diet.
b- The sight of beautiful Louise tempted the bachelor to change his mind about marriage.
c- Your offer of a job tempts me greatly.
۱۱- وسوسه کردن
12- wager
a- I lost a small wager on the Super Bowl.
b- After winning the wager, Tex treated everyone to free drinks.
c- It is legal to make a wager in the state of Nevada.
۱۲- شرط
Lesson 3
1- typical
a- The sinister character in the movie wore a typical costume, a dark shirt, loud tie, and tight jacket.
b- The horse ran its typical race, a slow start and a slower finish, and my uncle lost his wager.
c- It was typical of the latecomer to conceal the real cause of his lateness.
۱- ویژه- مخصوص
2- minimum
a- Studies show that adults need a minimum of six hours sleep.
b- The minimum charge for a telephone, even if no calls are made, is about $30 a month.
c- Congress has set a minimum wage for all workers.
۲- حداقل- کمترین
3- scarce
a- Chairs that are older than one hundred years are scarce.
b- Because there is little moisture in the desert, trees are scarce.
c- How scarce are good cooks .
۳- کم- کمیاب
4- annual
a- The annual convention of musicians takes place in Hollywood.
b- The publishers of the encyclopedia put out a book each year called an annual.
c- Plants that live only one year are called annuals.
۴- سالیانه- سالانه
5- persuade
a- Can you persuade him to give up his bachelor days and get married?
b- No one could persuade the captain to leave the sinking ship.
c- Beth's shriek persuade jesse that she was in real danger.
۵- متقاعد کردن
6- essential
a- The essential items in the cake are flour, sugar, and shortening.
b- It is essential that we follow the road map.
c- Several layers of thin clothing are essential to keeping warm in frigid climates .
۶- لازم- ضروری
7- blend
a- The colors of the rainbow blend into one another.
b- A careful blend of fine products will result in delicious food.
c- When jose blends the potatoes together, they come out very smooth.
.7مخلوط کردن- ترکیب کردن

8- visible
a- The ship was barely visible through the dense fog.
b- Before the stars are visible, the sky has to become quite dark .
c- You need a powerful lens to make some germs visible.
۸- قابل رویت- مرئی
9- expensive
a- Because diamonds are scarce they are expensive.
b- Margarine is much less expensive than butter.
c- Shirley's expensive dress created a great deal of excitement at the party.
۹- گران
10- talent
a- Medori's talent was noted when she was in first grade .
b- Feeling that he had the essential talent Carlos tried out for the school play.
c- Hard work can often make up for a lack of talent.
۱۰- استعداد ذاتی
11- devise
a- The burglars devised a scheme for entering the bank at night.
b- I would like to devise a method for keeping my toes from becoming numb while I am ice skating.
c- If we could devise a plan for using the abandoned building, we could save thousands of dollars.
۱۱- ابداع کردن- برنامه ریزی کردن
12- wholesale
a- The wholesale price of milk is six cents a quart lower than retail.
b- Many people were angered by the wholesale slaughter of birds.
c- By buying my eggs wholesale I save fifteen dollars a year.
12عمده فروشی- گسترده



Lesson4
1- vapor
a- Scientists have devised methods fer trapping vapor in bottles so they can study its makeup.
b- He has gathered data on the amount of vapor rising from the swamp.
c- A vapor trail is the visible stream of moisture left by the engines of a jet flying at high altitudes.
۱- بخار- مه
2- eliminate
a- when the railroad tracks are raised, the danger of crossing will be eliminated.
b- When figuring the cost of a car, don't eliminate such extras as air conditioning.
c- If we were to eliminate all reclining chairs, no one would fall asleep while watching television.
۲- حذف کردن
3- villain
a- A typical moving picture villain gets killed at the end.
b- The villain concealed the corpse in the cellar.
c- When the villain fell down the well, everyone lived happily ever after .
۳- ( آدم ) شرور
4- dense
a- The dense leaves on the trees let in a minimum of sunlight.
b- We couldn't row because of the dense weeds in the lake.
c- His keen knife cut through the dense jungle.
۴- انبوه- غلیظ- متراکم
5- Utilize
a- No one seems willing to utilize this vacant house.
b- The gardener was eager to utilize different flower and blend them in order to beautify the borders.
c- Does your mother utilize leftovers in her cooking?
۵- استفاده کردن
6- humid
a- It was so humid in our classroom that we wished the school would buy an air conditioner.
b- New Yorkers usually complain in the summer of the humid air.
c- Most people believe that ocean air is quite humid .
۶- شرجی - مرطوب
7- theory
a- Einstein's theory is really too difficult for the average person to understand .
b- My uncle has a theory about the effect of weather on baseball batters.
c- No one has advanced a convincing theory explaining the beginning of writing.
۷- نظریه
8- descend
a- If we let the air out of a balloon, it will have to descend.
b- The pilot, thinking his plane was in peril, descended quickly .
c- Knowing her beau was waiting at the bottom of staircase, Eleanor descended at once.
۸- پایین آمدن- فرود آمدن
.
9- circulate
a- A fan may circulate the air in summer, but it doesn't cool it.
b- My father circulated among the guests at the party and made them feel comfortable .
c- Hot water circulate through the pipes in the building, keeping the room warm.
۹- گردش کردن- منتشر کردن
10- enormous
a- The enormous crab moved across the ocean floor in search of food .
b- Public hanging once drew enormous crowds.
c- The gallant knight drew his sword and killed the enormous dragon.
۱۰- بسیار بزرگ- عظیم الجثه
11- predict
a- Weathermen can predict the weather correctly most of the time.
b-  Who can predict the winning of the Super Bowl this year? .
c- Laura thought she could predict what I would do, but she was wrong.
۱۱- پیش بینی کردن
12- vanish
a- Even in California the sun will sometimes vanish behind a cloud.
b- Not even a powerful witch can make a jealous lover vanish.
c- Give him a week without a job and all his money will vanish.
۱۲- ناپدید شدن- غیب شدن


Lesson 5
1- tradition
a- The father tried to persuade his son that the tradition of marriage was important.
b- All religions have different beliefs and traditions.
c- As time goes on, we will eliminate traditions that are meaningless.
۱- سنت
2- rural
a- tomatoes are less expensive at the rural farm stand.
b- Rural areas are not densely populated.
c- The rural life is much more peaceful than the city one.
۲- روستایی
3- burden
a- The burden of the country's safety is in the hands of the president.
b- Irma found the enormous box too much of a burden.
c- Ricky carried the burden throughout his college career .
۳- بار- بار مسئولیت
4- campus
a- The campus was designed to utilize all of the college's buildings.
b- Jeff moved off campus when he decided it was cheaper to live at home.
c- I chose to go to Penn State because it has a beautiful campus.
۴- محوطه دانشگاه یا مدرسه
5- majority
a- A majority of votes was needed for the bill to pass.
b- The majority of people prefer to pay wholesale prices for meat.
c- In some countries, the government does not speak for the majority of the people.
۵- اکثریت
6- assemble
a- The rioters assembled outside the White House.
b- I am going to assemble a model of a spacecraft.
c- All the people who had assembled for the picnic vanished when the rain began to fall .
۶- جمع شدن- جمع آوری کردن
7- explore
a- Lawyer Spence explored the essential reasons for the crime .
b- The weather bureau explored the effects of the rainy weather.
c- Sara wanted to know if all of the methods for solving the problem had been explored.
۷- بررسی کردن- تحقیق کردن

8- topic
a- Predicting the weather is our favorite topic of conversation.
b- Valerie only discussed topic that she knew well .
c- The speaker's main topic was how to eliminate hunger in this world.
۸- موضوع

9- debate
a- The debate between the two candidates was heated.
b- Debate in the U.S. Senate lasted for five days .
c- Instead of shrieking at each other, the students decided to have a debate on the topic.
۹- بحث کردن
10- evade
a- Juan tried to evade the topic by changing the subject .
b- In order to evade the police dragnet, Ernie grew a beard .
c- The prisoner of war evaded questioning by pretending to be sick.
۱۰- طفره رفتن
11- probe
a- The lawyer probed the man's mind to see if he was innocent.
b-  after probing the scientist's theory, we proved it was correct.
c- King Henry's actions were carefully probed by the noblemen.
۱۱- جستجو کردن- بررسی کردن
12- reform
a- After the prison riot, the council decided to reform the correctional system.
b- Brad reformed when he saw that breaking the law was hurting people other than himself.
c- Only laws that force companies to reform will clear the dangerous vapors from our air.
۱۲- اصلاح کردن
Lesson 6
1- approach
a- The lawyers in trial were often asked to approach the bench.
b- Her beau kissed Sylvia when he approached her.
c- Ben approached the burden of getting a job with a new spirit.
۱- نزدیک یا نزدیک تر شدن- پذیرفتن- شیوه
2- detect
a- Sam Spade detected that the important papers had vanished.
b- From her voice it was easy to detect that Ellen was frightened.
c- We detected from the messy room that a large group of people had assembled there.
۲- فهمیدن- کشف کردن
3- defect
a- My Chevrolet was sent back to the factory because of steering defect.
b- His theory of the formation of our world was filled with defects.
c- The villain was caught because his plan had many defects  .
۳- عیب- نقص
4- employee
a- The employees went on strike for higher wages.
b- My boss had to fire many employees when meat became scarce.
c- Joey wanted to go into business for himself and stop being an employee .
۴- کارمند
5- neglect
a- The senator neglected to make his annual report to Congress.
b- Bob's car got dirty when he neglected to keep it polished.
c- It is essential that you do not neglect your homework.
۵- غفلت کردن
6- deceive
a- Atlas was deceived about the burden he had to carry.
b- Virginia cried when she learned that her best friend had deceived her.
c- The villain deceived Chief White Cloud by pretending to be his friend .
۶- فریب دادن
7- undoubtedly
a- Ray's team undoubtedly had the best debators in our country .
b- The pilgrims undoubtedly assembled to travel to Rome together.
c- If she didn't want to get into an argument, Valerie would have followed the majority undoubtedly.
۷- مطمئناً- بدون شک
8- popular
a- The Beatles wrote many popular songs.
b- At one time miniskirts were very popular.
c- Popular people often find it hard to evade their many friends.
۸- مشهور- محبوب
9- thorough
a- The police made a thorough search of the house after the crime had been reported.
b- My science teacher praised Sandy for doing a thorough job of cleaning up the lab.
c- Mom decided to spend the day in giving the basement a thorough cleaning.
۹- کامل- کاملاً

10- client
a- The lawyer told her client that she could predict the outcome of his trial .
b- My uncle tried to get General Motors to be a client of his company.
c- If this restaurant doesn't improve its service, all its clients will vanish.
۱۰- موکل- مشتری
11- comprehensive
a- After a comprehensive exam. my doctor said I was in good condition.
b-  The engineer gave our house a thorough comprehensive checkup before my father bought it.
c- Mrs.Silver wanted us to do a comprehensive study of Edgar Allan poe.
۱۱- جامع


12- defraud
a- My aunt saved thousands of dollars by defrauding the government.
b- If we could eliminate losses from people who defraud the government. tax rates could be lowered.
c- By defrauding his friend, Dexter ruined a family tradition of honesty.
۱۲- کلاهبرداری کردن
Lesson 7
1- postpone
a- The young couple wanted to postpone their wedding until they were sure they could handle the burdens of marriage.
b- I neglected to postpone the party because I thought everyone would be able to come.
c- The supermarket's owner planned to postpone the grand opening until Saturday.
۱- به زمان دیگری موکول کردن- به تعویق انداختن
2- consent
a- My teacher consented to let out class leave early.
b- David would not consent to our plan.
c- The majority of our club members consented to raise the dues.
۲- موافقت کردن
3- massive
a- The boss asked some employees to lift the massive box.
b- From lifting weights, Willie had developed massive arm muscles.
c- The main building on the campus was so massive that the new students had trouble finding their way around at first.
۳- بزرگ- حجیم- سنگین
4- capsule
a- The small capsule contained notes the spy had written after the meeting.
b- A new, untested medicine was detected in the capsule by the police scientists.
c- He explored the space capsule for special equipment .
۴- جعبه (کوچک)
5- preserve
a- The lawyers wanted to preserve the newest reforms in the law.
b- Farmers feel that their rural homes should be preserved.
c- The outfielder's records are preserved in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
۵- محافظت کردن- جلوگیری کردن- ضبط کردن
6- denounce
a- The father denounced his son for lying to the district attorney.
b- Some people denounce the government for probing into their private lives.
c- The consumer advocate denounced the defective products being sold.
۶- محکوم کردن

7- unique
a- Going to Africa was a unique experience for us.
b- the inventor developed a unique method of making ice cream.
c- Albie has a unique collection of Israeli stamps.
۷- بی نظیر- منحصر بفرد- تک
8- torrent
a- a massive rain was coming down in torrents.
b- In a debate, a torrent of questions was asked.
c- After trying to defraud the public, Lefty was forced with a torrent of charges.
۸- سیل
9- resent
a- Bertha resented the way her boyfriend treated her.
b- The earthquake victim resent the poor emergency care.
c- Columbus resent the fact that his crew wanted to turn back.
۹- رنجیدن- آزرده شدن
10- molest
a- My neighbor was molested when walking home from the subway.
b- The gang did a thorough job of molesting the people in the park.
c- Lifeguards warned the man not to molest any of the swimmers.
۱۰- اذیت کردن- مزاحم شدن
11- gloomy
a- My cousin was gloomy because his best friend had moved away.
b- The reason Doris wasn't popular was that she always had a gloomy appearance.
c- Jones Beach is not so beautiful on a gloomy day.
۱۱- دلگیر- کم نور- ابری
12- unforeseen
a- We had some unforeseen problems with the new engine.
b- The probe into the congressman's finances turned up some unforeseen difficulties.
c- The divers faced unforeseen trouble in their search for the wreck.
۱۲- پیش بینی نشده- غیر مترقبه   
Lesson 8
1.    exaggerate                           
1.مبالغه كردن،غلو كردن
a.    He wasn't trying to deceive* you when he said that his was the best car in
the world; he was just exaggerating.
b.    The bookkeeper exaggerated her importance to the company.
c. When he said that Kareem Abdui..Jabbar was eight feet tall, he was undoubtedly* exaggeratin
2.     amateur                  
      2.     آماتور ،غیر حرفه ای ،دوستدار هنر                                                                            
a.     The amateur cross-country runner wanted to be in the Olympics.
b.     After his song, Don was told that he wasn't good enough to be anything but an amateur.
c.     Professional golfers resent* amateurs  who think they are as good as thepeople who play for money.


3.     mediocre
3.متوسط ،معمولی،پیش پا افتاده
a.     After reading my composition, Mrs. Evans remarked that it was mediocre and that I could do better.
b.     Howard   was a  mediocre scientist who never made     any    unique*
discoveries
c.     The movie wasn't a great one; it was only mediocre.
4   .        variety  
4.متنوع ،گوناگون،مجموعه متنوع
            a.        Eldorado Restaurant serves a wide  variety of foods.
b.     The show featured a variety of entertainment.
c.     He faced unforeseen* problems for a variety of reasons.
5.     valid
5.معتبر ،دارای اعتبار،قانونی،صحیح ،مؤثر
a. The witness neglected* to give valid answers to the judge's questions.
 b. Rita had valid reasons for denouncing* her father's way of life.
c. When Dave presented valid  working papers, the foreman consented* to hiring him immediately

6.        Survive       
زنده ماندن ، جان سالم به در بردن ،سپری كردن ،زیستن 6.
            a.it  was uncertain whether we would survive the torrent ofrain.
              b.  Some people believe that only the strongest should survive.
           c.  The space capsule* was built to survive a long journey in space

7.     weird    
7.خارق العاده، عجیب        
             a. She looked weird with that horrible make-up on her face.
             b.  Allen felt that weird things were starting to happen when he                     entered the haunted house.
             c.  Becky had a weird feeling after swallowing the piUs.

8.    prominent             
صاحب نام ،مشهور،برجسته،سرشناس
            a.  My client* is a prominent businessperson.
             b. Charles DeGaulle is a prominent  figure in the history of France.
            c. His big nose was the prominent feature of Jimmy Durante's face.
9.     security
امنیت،ایمنی،اطمینان،آسایش خاطر
            a.Our janitor likes the security of having all doors locked at night.
            b.  When the President travels, strict security measures are taken.
            c.  Pablo wanted to preserve* the security of his life style.

10.    bulky        
حجیم،جاگیرنده،بزرگ،دست و پا گیر    
             a. Charley and Marty removed the bulky package from the car.
             b.  The massive* desk was quite bulky and impossible to carry.
             c. His client* wanted an item that wasn't so bulky, Olsen told us.
11.    reluctant          
بی میل،ناراحت 
            a. It was easy to see that Herman was reluctant to go out and find a job.

            b.   The patient was reluctant to tell the nurse the whole gloomy*  truth.
           c.    I was reluctant to give up the security* of family life.
12.    obvious
آشكار،واضح،روشن،بدیهی،مشهود
           a.   It was obvious that the lumberjack was tired after his day's work.
           b.  The fact that Darcy was a popular* boy was obvious to all.
          c. The detective missed the clue because it was too obvious.
Lesson 9
1.     vicinity
همسایگی،حومه،مجاورت،اطراف،پیرامون
a.    Living in the vicinity of New York, Jeremy was near many museums.
b.    The torrent* of rain fell only in our vicinity.
c.     We approached* the Baltimore vicinity by car.
2.     century
2.قرن،دوره صد ساله،سده
a.     George Washington lived in the eighteenth century.
b.    The United States is two centuries  old.
c.     Many prominent* men have been born in this century.
3.    rage
3.عصبانیت،خشم،غضب،جنون
a.    Joan's bad manners sent her mother into a rage.
b.      In a fit of rage,Francine broke the valuable glass.
c.     The mayor felt a sense of rage about the exaggerations* in the press.
4.     document
4. مدرك،سند
a.    Newly discovered documents showed that the prisonerwas obviously* innocent.
b.    The documents of ancient Rome have survived* many centuries.*
c.     We were reluctant* to destroy important documents.
5.    conclude
5. تمام كردن،خاتمه دادن،به پایان رساندن،نتیجه گرفتن
a.     Most people are happy when they conclude their work for the day.
b.     The gloomy* day concluded with a thunderstorm.
c.     Work on the building could not be concluded until the contract was signed.
6.    undeniable
6.غیر قابل انكار،انكار ناپذیر،مسلم
            a.The jury concluded* that the teenagers were undeniably guilty.
            b. It is undeniable that most professionals can beat any amateur.*
            c. That Leon resented* Rita's good marks in school was undeniable.
7.     resist
7.ایستادگی كردن،مقائمت كردن درباره،مخالفت كردن با
a.    Totie could not resist eating the chocolate sundae.
b.    Tight security* measures resisted Jimmy's entrance into the bank.
c.      Harold resisted the opportunity to poke fun at the weird* man.
8.    lack
8.فاقد بودن ،نداشتن ،كم داشتن ،نیاز داشتن
a.    Your daily diet should not lack fruits and vegetables.
b.      His problem was that he lacked a variety* of talents.
c.     As an amateur* dancer, Vincent knew that he lacked  the professional touch.
9.    Ignore
9.نادیده،گرفتن،اعتنا نكردن،محل نگذاشتن،توجه نكردن
a.     Little Alice realized that if she didn't behave, her parents would ignore her.
b.     The student could not answer the question because he ignored the
obvious* facts.
c.     Older brothers and sisters often feel ignored when their parents only spend time with a new baby.
10.    challenge
10.دعوت به مبارزه كردن،به جنگ خواستن،رقابت كردن
a.    Aaron Burr challenged Alexander Hamilton to a duel.
b.    No one bothered to challenge the prominent* lawyer.
c.     Trying to become a doctor was quite a challenge, Dick discovered.
11.    miniature
11.نمونه كوچك،مینیاتوری،بسیار كوچك
a.    The young boy wanted a miniature sports car for his birthday.
b.      Instead of buying a massive* dog, Teddy  got a miniature poodle.
c.     We were seeking a miniature model of the bulky*  chess set.
12.     source
12.منبع،سرچشمه،منشا،ماخذ
a.     The  college  student knew  that he needed more  than a basic  textbook as a source for his report.
b.     The source of Buddy's trouble was boredom.
c.     Professor Smith's speech was a valid* source of information on chemistry.



Lesson 10
1.    excel
1.بی نظیر بودن،برتر بودن،تك بودن ،بهتر بودن ،ممتاز بودن،سرآمد بودن
            a.    Because he was so small, Larry could not excel in sports.
            b.     At least Hannah had  the security* of knowing that she excelled in sw1•mm1• ng.
            c.     Clarence Darrow wanted to become a prominent* lawyer, but he felt that he must first excelin history.
2.          feminine
2.زنانه،مربوط به زنان ،مونث
             a.     When my sister wants to look feminine she chan_ges from dungarees into a dress.
             b.     Some men cannot resist* staring when they see a woman who is especially   feminine.
             c.     My brother is ashamed to cry at a sad movie because people might think he is behaving in a feminine manner.
3 .          mount    
3.بالا رفتن ،صعود كردن ،سوارشدن      
  a.     Senator Glenn mounted the platform to make his speech.
 b.     The watchman mounted the tower to see if there were any people in the vicinity.*
 c.     My sister couldn't mount the horse so they gave her a pony instead.
4.    compete
4.رقابت كردن،مسابقه دادن،به مبارزه طلبیدن،هم چشمی كردن
             a.    Pam Shriver was challenged* to compete for the tennis title.
             b.     The runner was reluctant* to compete in front of his parents for the first time.                 
            c.     When the amateur* became a pro he had to compete against better men.
5.     dread
5.ترسیدن از ،ایجاد وحشت و ترس كردن ،وحشت داشتن از،دلهره داشتن
             a.     The poor student dreaded going to school each morning.
             b.     He had a dread feeling about the challenge* he was about to face.
             c.     Idread going into that deserted house.
6.     masculine    
6.مردانه،مربوط به مردان،مذكر         
a.    The boy became more masculine as he got older.
              b.     It is undeniable* that his beard makes him look masculine.
             c.     The girls liked Jerry because of his masculine ways.
7.     menace             
7.خطر تهدید،مزاحم،مایه درد سر
 a.     lrv's lack* of respect made him a menace to his parents.
 b.     The torrents* of rain were a menace to the farmer's crops.
              c.     Sergeant Fay's raw language was an obvious* menace to the reputation of the entire police department.
8.     tendency
8.تمایل ،میل ،رغبت،استعداد،آمادگی،گرایش
            a.    My algebra teacher has a tendency to forget the students' names.
            b.     His tendency was to work hard in the morning and then to take it easy in  the afternoon.
            c.     The tendency in all human beings is to try to survive.*
9.    underestimate     
9.دست كم گرفتن ،كم تخمین زدن ،كم بر آورد كردن،كوچك شمردن       
a.     I admit that Iunderestimated the power in the bulky* fighter's frame.  b.     Undoubtedly* the boss underestimated his employee's* ability    to work hard.
 c.     The value of our house was underestimated by at least two thousand  dollars.       
10.     victorious
10.پیروزمند،برنده،پیروز،فاتح
 a.     Playing in New Jersey, the Giants  were victorious two years in a row.
 b.    Terry    faced    the nchallenge* with the bad attitude that he could not be  victorious.
 c.     Our girls' volleyball squad was victorious over a taller team.
11.     numerous           
11.فراوان،زیاد،بی شمار،بسیار،متعدد
 a.     Critics review numerous movies every week.
 b.     Dr. Fischer had resisted* accepting money from the poor woman on
             numerous housecalls.
            c.     The debator* used numerous documents* to back up his statements.
12.     flexible             
12.قابل انعطاف ،انعطاف پذیر،قابل تغییر،نرم ،تاشو
a.    The toy was flexible, and the baby could bend it easily.
 b.     Remaining flexible, Nick listened to arguments from both sides.
 c.     A mouse's flexible body allows it to squeeze through narrow open1• ngs.
Lesson 11
Lesson 11
1.    evidence                
1.سند،مدرك،دلیل،شاهد،گواه،اثرةنشانه
              a.    Each juror felt he needed more evidence  before voting to convict the
               accused killer.
               b.     Her many awards were evidence enough that Leona excelled* in typing.
               c.     Our teacher ignored* the evidence that Simon had cheated on the test.

2.    solitary
2.تنها ،تك ،یكه ، منزوی،گوشه گیر،دور افتاده             
a.    Sid's solitary manner kept him from making new friendships.
b.     There was not a solitary  piece of evidence* that Manuel had eaten the cheesecake.
 c.     The convict went into a rage* when he was placed in a solitary cell.
3.     vision      
3.بینایی،بصیرت ،تصور ،قدرت دید ،رویا       
a.    With the aid of the binoculars, my vision improved enough to see the
entire vicinity
  b.     Ted Williams had perfect vision, and that helped to make him a great baseball player.
 c.    The glasses which Irma bought corrected her near-sighted vision.
4.     frequent 
4.متعدد،فراوان،مكرر،همیشگی،متداول،پی در پی
a.    We made frequent visits to the hospital to see our grandfather.
b.    On frequent occasions Sam fell asleep in class.
c.     Dr. Bonner gave me some pills for my frequent headaches.
5.    glimpse
5.نگاه اجمالی،نگاه آنی وسریع،نگاه گذرا
a.    This morning we caught our first glimpse of the beautiful shoreline.
b.    One glimpse of the very feminine* vision* was enough to tell Romeo that he loved Juliet.
c.     The tall shrubs kept us from getting a glimpse  of the new people who inhabited* the beach house.
6.    recent
6.اخیر ،جدید ،تازه
a.    At a recent meeting, the Board of Education provided the evidence* we had been asking for.
b.    Bessie liked the old silent movies better than the more recent ones.
c.    Recent studies have concluded* that more people are working than ever before.
7.    decade
7.دهه،دوره ده ساله
a.    The 1960's was a decade of salary increases for employees.*
b.     Many people moved out of this city in the last decade.
c.    Ihave a vision* that this decade will be better than the last one.
8.    hesitate
8.تردید كردن ،شك كردن ،مكث كردن ، دو دل بودن ،مردد بودن ، درنگ كردن
a.    Nora hesitated to accept the challenge.*
b.    When he got to the robbers' vicinity,* he hesitated before going on.
c.     The proverb tells us that he who hesitates is lost.
9.    absurd
9.بی معنی ،نا معقول ، بیهوده ،احمقانه ،پوچ،عبث
a.    It was absurd to believe the fisherman's tall tale.
b.    The flabby boy realized that the suggestion to diet was not absurd.
c.    Underestimating* the importance of reading is absurd.
10.     conflict
10.كشمكش و تضاد ،نزاع،برخورد،ستیزه ،اختلاف ،مغایرت،ناسازگاری
a.    Our    opinions about the company's success in the last decade*    are    in conflict with what the records show.
b.    There was a noisy conflict over who was the better tennis player.
c.      The mayor and her assistant conflict in opinion frequently
11.    minority
11.اقلیت ،خردسالی
a.    Only a small minority of the neighborhood didn't want a new park.
b.     A minority  of our athletes who competed* in the Olympics were victorious.*
c.    Blacks are a minority group in the United States.
12.    fiction
12.افسانه یا قصه ، خیال ،دروغ /ع حرف بی اساس
a.     The story that the President had died was fiction.
b.    We hardly ever believed Vinny because what he said was usually fiction.
c.     Marge enjoys reading works of fiction rather than true stories.
Lesson 12
1.    ignite
1.مشتعل كردن،جرقه زدن ،آتش زدن روشن كردن ،برانگیختن
a.     Spark plugs ignite in an automobile engine.
b.     One match can ignite an entire forest.
c.     A careless remark helped to ignite the conflict* between  the brothers and the sisters.
2.     abolish
2.بر انداختن ،پایان دادن ،منسوخ كردن ،برچیدن ، لغو كردن
a.     The death penalty has recently* been aDolished in our state.
b.     We  abolished numerous*  laws  which didn't serve  any     purpose     in  this decade.*
c.     My school has abolished final exams altogether.
3.     urban
3.شهری،مربوط به شهر
a.     Many businesses open offices in urban areas.
b.     I plan to exchange my urban location for a rural* one.
c.     Only a small minority*  of the people of the United States live far from any urban area.
4.    population
4.جمعیت،مردم،اهالی،سكنه
a.     China has the largest population of any country.
b.     The population of the world has increased in every decade.*
c.     After     the     recent* floods,  the  population of     Honduras     was     reduced  by 10,000.


5.     frank 
5.صادق ،صریح،صادقانه،رك ،بی رو در واسی،بی ریا،روراست
a.     Never underestimate* the value of being frank with one another.
b.     Eretha was completely frank when she told her friend about the sale. c.     People liked Duffy because they knew he would be frank with them.
6.     pollute
6.آلوده كردن ،منحرف كردن ،فاسد كردن
a.     The Atlantic Ocean is in danger of becoming polluted.
b.     There is much evidence* to show that the air we breathe is polluted.
c.     It is claimed that soap powders pollute the water we drink.
7.     reveal
7.آشكار كردن ،برملا كردن ،مطلع كردن ،فاش كردن ،به اطلاع رساندن،نشان دادن
a.     Napoleon agreed to reveal the information to the French population.*
b.     The evidence* was revealed only after hours of questioning.
c.     General Motors revealed reluctantly* that there were defects* in their new Buicks.
8.     prohibit
8.ممنوع كردن،جلوگیری كردن،قدغن كردن،مانع شدن ،منع كردن
a.     Elvin's manager prohibited him from appearing on television.
b.      Many homeowners prohibit others from walking on their property. c.     The law prohibits the use of guns to settle a conflict.*

9.     urgent
9.ضرئری ،مهم،اضطراری،فوری ،مبرم
a.    An urgent telephone call was made to the company's treasurer.
b.     The principal  called  an urgent meeting  to solve  the school's  numerous* problems.
c.     When he heard the urgent cry for help, the lifeguard did not hesitate.*
1o.    adequate 
10.كافی،بسنده،رضایت بخش،به اندازه ،لازم
a. Rover was given an adequate amount of food to last him the whole day.
b. A bedroom, kitchen, and bath were adequate  shelter for his living needs.
c.     Carlos was adequate at his job but he wasn't great.
11.     decrease
11.كم كردن ،كاهش یافتن ،تقلیل یافتن
a.     As he kept spending money, the amount he saved decreased.
b.     In order to improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.
c.     The landlord promised to decrease our rent.
12.     audible
12.قابل شنیدن ،رسا ،شنیدنی
a.     From across the room, the teacher's voice was barely audible.
b.     After Len got his new hearing aid, my telephone calls became audible.
c.     Commands from Ann's drill sergeant were always easily audible.
Lesson 13
1.    journalist   
1.روزنامه نگار
a.    There were four journalists covering the murder story.
b.     Barbara's experience working at a book store wasn't adequate* preparation for becoming a journalist.
c.     A journalist must have a comprehensive* knowledge* of the city where he or she works.
2.     famine
2.قحطی،تنگ سالی،خشك سالی،كمیابی،گرسنگی
a.     Famine in India caused the death of one-tenth of the population.*
b.     There has been a famine of good writing in the last decade.*
c.     The rumor of a famine in Europe was purely fiction.*
3.     revive
3.دوباره رواج پیدا كردن ،احیا كردن ،به هوش آمدن، نیروی تازه بخشیدن ،زنده شدن
a.     There is a movement to revive old plays for modern audiences.
b.     The nurses tried to revive the heart attack victim.
c.     Committees are trying to revive interest in population* control.
4.    commence
4.آغاز كردن،شروع كردن
a.     Graduation will commence at ten o'clock.
b.     Bella hesitated* before commencing her speech.
c.     The discussion commenced with a report on urban* affairs.
5.     observant
5.هوشیار،مواظب،مراقب،دقیق،مراعات كننده
a.    We were observant of the conflict* between the husband and his wife.
b.     Because Cato was observant, he was able to reveal* the thief's name.
c.     Milt used his excellent vision* to be observant of everything in his vicinity.*
6.     identify
6.تشخیص دادن،تعیین هویت كردن،شناسایی كردن،شناختن،مشخص/تعیین كردن
a.     Numerous* witnesses identified the butcher as the killer.
b.      Mrs. Shaw was able to identify the painting as being hers.
c.     With only a quick glimpse,* Reggie was able to identify his girlfriend in the crowd.
7.     migrate
7.مهاجرت كردن ،كوچ كردن
a.     The fruit pickers migrated to wherever they could find work.
b.     Much    of our population* is constantly migrating to other    areas    of    the country.
c.     My grandfather migrated to New York from Italy in 1919.


8.     vessel
8.ظرف،بشقاب،رگ (بدن)،هرنوع مچرا و لولهف آوند،كشتی
a.    The Girl Scouts were permitted a glimpse* of the vessel being built when they toured the Navy Yard.
b.     My father burst a blood vessel when he got the bill from the garage.
c.    Congress voted to decrease* the amount of money being spent on space vessels.
9.    persist
9. با اصرار ادامه دادن،پافشاری كردن،اصرار كردن،ادامه یافتن ،ادامه داشتن
a.    The humid* weather persisted all summer.
b.    Would Lorraine's weird* behavior persist, we all wondered?
c.     Lloyd persisted in exaggerating* everything he said.
10.    hazy
10.غبار آلود ،مبهم ،مه آلود ،نامشخص،گرفته ،تیره
a.    The vicinity* of London is known to be hazy.
b.     Factories that pollute* the air create hazy weather conditions.
c.     Although Cora had a great memory, she was unusually hazy about the details of our meeting on January 16th.   
11.    gleam
11.پرتو آنی ،شعاع نور،درخشش نور ،كوسو،نور ضعیف
a.     A gleam  of light shone through the prison window.
b.     The only source* of light in the cellar came in the form of a gleam through a hole in the wall.
c.     My grandmother gets a gleam in her eyes when she sees the twins.
12.    editor
12.سر دبیر ،ویرایشگر،مدیر(مجله و ...)   
a.    The student was proud to be the editor of the school newspaper.
b.     Meredith's journalistic knowledge* came in handy when he was unexpect­ edly given the job of editor of The Bulletin.
c.    It is undeniable* that the magazine has gotten better since Ellis became editor.
Lesson 14
1.    unruly
1.به هم ریخته ،غیر قابل كنترل ،بی قانون ،سركش،آشفته ،افسار گسیخته
a.    Unruly behavior is prohibited* at the pool.
b.     When he persisted* in acting unruly, Ralph was fired from his job.
c.    His unruly actions were a menace* to those who were trying to work.
2.     rival
2.رقیب ،حریف هم چشمی كننده
a.    The boxer devised* an attack which would help him to be victorious* over his young rival.
b.     Sherry didn't like to compete* because she always thought her rival would w1• n.
c.    Seidman and Son decided to migrate* to an area where they would have fewer rivals.
3.    violent
3.خشن ،طرفدار خشونت ،طرفدار زور،شدید
a.    Carefully, very carefully, we approached* the violent man.
b.     Violent behavior is prohibited* on school grounds.
c.     Vernon had a tendency* to be violent when someone angered him.
4.    brutal
4.وحشی،حیوان صفت ،جانور خوی ،بی رحم
a.    Dozens of employees* quit the job because the boss was brutal to them.
b.     The brutal track coach persisted* in making the team work out all morning under the hot sun.
c.     Swearing to catch the murderer, the detectives revealed* that it had been an unusually brutal, violent* crime.
5.    opponent
5.حریف ،رقیب ،هماورد،مخالف،طرف دعوی   
a.    The Russian chess player underestimated* his opponent and lost.
b.     He was a bitter opponent of costly urban* reform.
c.     Seeing his flabby* opponent, Slugger was sure he would be victorious.*
6.    brawl
6.دادو بیداد ،درگیری،جارو جنجال،دعوا و مرافعه،كتك كاری
a.The journalist* covered all the details of the brawl in the park.
b.  Larry dreaded* a brawl with his father over finding a job.
c. What started out as a polite discussion soon became a violent* brawl.
7.    duplicate
7.تكثیر كردن،دونسخه كردن،كپی گرفتن ،رونوشت،المثنی،دو نسخه ای ،تكراری
a.    Elliott tried to deceive* Mrs. Held by making a duplicate of my paper.
b.     We duplicated the document* so that everyone had a copy to study.
c.     The    so-called expert did a mediocre* job of duplicating the Van Gogh painting.
8.     vicious
8.شرور ،بد كار،فاسد،بد طینت،وحشی،درنده
a.    Liza was unpopular* because she was vicious to people she had just met.
b.     The vicious editor* published false stories about people he disliked. c.      Mr. Voss was reluctant* to talk about his vicious St. Bernard dog.
9.    whirling
9. چرخیدن ،چرخاندن،چرخش،حركت گردابی
a.    The space vessel* was whirling around before it landed on earth.
b.     As they tried to lift the bulky* piano, the movers went whirling across the living room.
c.     Because Angelo drank too much, he commenced* to feel that everything was whirling around the bar.
10.         underdog
10.شخص بازنده،توسری خور،شخص ستمدیده،فلك زده ،آدم ضعیف
a.    Minority* groups complain about being the underdogs in this century.
b.    I always feel sorry for the underdog in a street fight.
c.   The Jets were identified*  as underdogs even though they had beaten the Los Angeles Rams earlier in the season.
11 .    thrust
11.پرتاب كردن،هل دادن،چپاندن،به زور باز كردن
a.    Once the jet engine was ignited,* it thrust the rocket from the ground. b.    He had adequate* strength to thrust himself through the locked door. c.    Eva was in a terrible rage* when she thrust herself into the room.
12.     bewildered
12.مبهوت .شگفت زده .مات
a.    The lawyer was bewildered by his client's* lack* of interest in the case.   
b.         His partner's weird*  actions left Jack bewildered.
c.    Bewildered by the  sudden  hazy*  weather,  he decided  not to go to the beach.   
Lesson 15
1.    expand                                                                                                                                         1.توسعه دادن .تعمیم دادن .افزایش دادن .به تفصیل شرح دادن                                                                                                                                                          
a.    We will expand our business as soon as we locate    a new building.
b.     Present laws against people who pollute* the air must be expanded.
c.     Expanding the comic strips, the editor* hoped that more people would buy his paper.
2.     alter    
               2.اصلاح کردن .تغییر دادن .عوض کردن .دگرگون کردن                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
a.     I altered my typical* lunch and had a steak instead.
b.     Dorothy agreed to alter my dress if I would reveal* its cost to her.
c.      It's absurd* to spend money to alter that old candy store.


2.    mature
3.بالغ .معقول .عاقل .سنجیده                                                                   
a.     Icould tell that Mitch was mature from the way he persisted* in his work.
b.     Only through mature study habits can a person hope to gain knowledge.*
c.      It is essential* that you behave in a mature way in the business world.
4.     sacred
4.مقدس .روحانی .مذهبی .محترم .جدی 
a.    Her sacred medal had to be sold because the family was in urgent* need of money.
b.     It was revealed* by the journalist* that the sacred temple had been torn down.
c.     Kate made a sacred promise to her parents never to miss a Sunday church serv1
5.     revise
 5. تجدید نظر کردن .بازبینی کردن .اصلاح کردن .
a.     My family revised its weekend plans when the weather turned hazy.*
b.     The    dictionary    was    revised     and    then    published    in a more    expensive* edition.
c.     Under the revised rules, Shane was eliminated* from competing.*
6.     pledge
6. تعهد گرفتن. قول دادن. متعهد شدن. شرف
a.     Before the grand jury, the sinister* gangster pledged  to tell the whole truth.
b.     Monte was reluctant* to pledge his loyalty* to his new girlfriend.
c.     Pledged  to discovering the facts, the journalist* began to    dig    up    new evidence* for his readers.
7.     casual 
7.اتفاقی. تصادفی. سطحی. غیر رسمی
a.    As the villain* stole the money from the blind man, he walked away in a casualmanner.
b.     The bartender made a casualremark about the brawl* in the backroom.
c.    Following    a  casual  meeting on  the street, the bachelor*    renewed his friendship with the widow.
8.     pursue
8.تعقیب کردن. دنبال کردن. اتخاذ کردن
a.     We pursued the bicycle thief until he vanished* from our vision.*
b.     Ernie rowed up the river, pursuing it to its source.*
c.     The senior wanted to pursue urban* affairs as his life's work.
9.     unanimous
9.هم رای. هم عقیده. یکدل و یکزبان
a.    The class was unanimous in wanting to eliminate* study halls.
b.     There has never been an election in our    union which was    won by    a unanimous vote.
c.     The Senate, by a unanimous vote, decided to decrease* taxes.
1o.    fortunate
10.نیک بخت. خوشبخت. مساعد. خوب
a.     Wesley was fortunate to have an adequate* sum of money in the bank.
b.     It is fortunate that the famine* did not affect our village.
c.     The underdog* was fortunate enough to come out a winner.
11.     pioneer 
11.بیشتاز،بیش گام، بیشرو
a.     My grandfather was a pioneer in selling wholesale* products.
b.    England  was a pioneer  in building large vessels* for tourists.
c.     In     the     fourth     grade     I assembled* a picture  collection of great  American
p1• oneers.
12.     innovative
12.مبتکر،مبتکرانه،ابتکاری،نوآورانه
a.     The innovative ads for the candy won many new customers.
b.     Everyone in our office praised  the boss for his innovative suggestions.
c.     Nicole decided  to alter* her approach  and become  more innovative.
Lesson 16
1.    slender
1.بلندوباریک، لاغر، باریک اندام، کشیده
a.    Carlotta's slender figure made her look very feminine.*
b.     There was only a slender chance that you could conceal* the truth.
c.    The    slender thief was    able    to enter the apartment through the narrow window.
2.     surpass
2.سبقت کردن، برتری داشتن،بهتر بودن
a.    The    machines of the twentieth century* surely surpass those of earlier times.
b.     Most farmers believe that rural* life far surpasses urban* living.
c.    It is undeniable* that a cold lemonade in July cannot be surpassed.
3.     vast 
3.کثیر،وسیع، گسترده،بزرگ
a.    Daniel Boone explored* vast  areas that had never been settled.
b.     Our campus* always seems vast to new students.
c.     Vast differences between the two sides were made clear in the debate.*
4.     doubt
4.شک،تردید،دودلی، باورنکردن
a.    Scientists doubt that a total cure for cancer will be found soon.
b.     The question of whether he could survive* the winter was left in doubt.
c.    We don!t doubt that the tradition* of m•arriage will continue.
5.     capacity
5.ظرفیت، توانایی، گنجایش، صلاحیت
a.    A sign in the elevator stated that its capacity was 1100 pounds.
b.     The gasoline capsule* had a capacity of 500 gallons.
c.    So well-liked was the prominent* speaker that the auditorium was filled to capacity when he began his lecture.
6.     penetrate
6.نفوذ کردن ،رخنه کردن، کشف کردن
a.    We had to penetrate the massive* wall in order to hang the mirror.
b.     Although Kenny tried to pound the nail into the rock with a hammer, he couldn't penetrate the hard surface.
c.     The thieves penetrated the bank's security* and stole the money.

7.     pierce
7.رسوخ کردن، رخنه کردن،شکافتن
a.    My sister is debating* whether or not to get her ears pierced.
b.     I tried to ignore* his bad violin playing, but the sound was piercing.
c.     Halloran violently* pierced the skin of his rival,* causing massive* bleeding.
8.     accurate
8. دقیق،صحیح، درست
a.    Ushers took an accurate count of the people assembled* in the theatre.
b.     Emma's vision* was so accurate that she didn't need glasses.
c.    In writing on the topic,* Vergil used accurate information.
9.    microscope
9.میکروسکوب
a.    The students used a microscope to see the miniature* insect.
b.     Young Jonas Salk wanted to get a glimpse* of things he couldn't see with just his eyes, so his father bought him a microscope.
c.    Using a microscope, the scientist was able to probe* into the habits of germs.
10.     grateful
10.متشکر،سباسگذار،ممنون
a.    The majority* of pupils felt grateful for Mr. Ash's help.
b.     We were grateful that the gloomy* weather cleared up on Saturday. c.      In his letter, Waldo told how grateful he was for the loan.
11.     cautious
11.محتاط، مواظب، مراقب
a.     Be cautious when you choose your opponent.*
b.      Good authors are cautious not to exaggerate* when they write.
c.     If the rain is falling in torrents;it is best to drive cautiously.
12.     confident
12.خاطرجمع،دل گرم
a.     Judge Emery was confident he could solve the conflict.*
b.     When he lifted the burden,* Scotty was confident he could carry it.
c.     Annette was confident she would do well as a nurse.
Lesson17
1.    appeal
1.جذبه، کشش، درخواست،
a.     Anything Jorge could get at wholesale* price had a great appealfor him.
b.    My boss always appeals to his employees* to work swiftly and neatly.
c.     I found her clothing designs to be enormously* appealing.
2.     addict
2.خوگرفته ،اسیر،بسیار علاقه مند
a.    Because he was a heroin addict, it was essential* for Carras to get the drug each day.
b.    Marcia became flabby* because she was addicted to ice cream sodas.
c.    Those who take aspirins and other pain..killers regularly should realize that they may become  drug addicts, too.
3.     wary
3.مواظب ،مراقب،محتاط
a.    Marilyn's mother told her to be wary of strangers with a gleam* in their eye.
b.    After Orlando had been the victim of a cheat, he was wary  of those who said they wanted to help him.
c.     Living in a poUuted* city makes you wary of the air you breathe.
4.     aware
4.متوجه، آگاه، باخبر
a.    Donna was aware of her tendency* to exaggerate.*
b.     It was some time before the police became aware of the brawl* which was taking place on the street.
c.     The only way to gain knowledge* is to be aware of everything around you.
5.     misfortune
5.بدبختی،بدبیاری،بدشانسی
a.    It was my misfortune that our car wasn't thoroughly* checked before the trip through the desert.
b.     Being bitten by the vicious* dog was quite a misfortune for Tommy.
c.     Ihad the misfortune of working for a greedy* man.
6.    avoid
6.دوری کردن ،اجتناب کردن از،خودداری کردن از
a.     If you are fortunate* you can avoid people who are trying to deceive* you.
b.     There was no way to avoid noticing her beautifur green eyes.
c.     Avoid getting into a brawl* if you can.
7.    wretched
7.اسف بار،بدبخت، بسیار بد
a.    I feel wretched after a night when I've scarcely* slept.
b.     There was unanimous* agreement that we had seen a wretched movie.
c.     Toby had wretched luck at the gambling tabres.

8.    keg
8.بشکه ی کوچک
a.     The corner saloon uses numerous* kegs of beer on a Saturday night.
b.     "Get a keg of nails," the carpenter shouted at me.
c.     It is obvious* to me that the situation is filled with peril,* a real powder keg if I ever saw one.
9.     nourish
9.غذا دادن ،تقویت کردن
a.     A diet of nourishing food is served to every hospital patient.
b.     It was easy to detect* that the skinny boy was not well nourished.
c.     After the operation, our doctor plans to nourish my mother with vitamins and good food.
10.    harsh
زبر، خشک، بی  رحم. 10
a.     The law is harsh on people who go around menacing* others.
b.     Looking at his cigarette, Phil realized  it was absurd*  to inhale  such harsh smoke.
c.     Hazel altered* her tone of voice from a harsh one to a soft tone.
11.    quantity
اندازه، مقدار، کمیت                                                                                           .11
a.     I never neglect* to carry a small quantity of money with me.
b.     Who believes that quantity is better than quality?
c.     A large quantity of meat is always stored in our freezer.
12.     opt
انتخاب کردن، تصمیم گرفتن، درصدد بودن 12.
a.     If you give me an ice cream choice, I'll opt for chocolate.
b.     Our cheerleaders plan to opt for new sweaters.
c.     On Friday, three of my buddies  will opt to go into the navy.
Lesson 18
1.    tragedy
                                                                                                                                      داستان غم انگیز .1
a.     It was a tragedy that some pioneers* were killed on their way west.
b.     If you had your choice between seeing a comedy or a tragedy, which play would you choose?
c.     Harry's enormous* jealousy* led to the tragedy in their family.
2.pedestrian
2. بیاده رو
a.     After driving a bus all day, Norris liked to be a pedestrian and take long, casual* walks in the evening.
b.    The police say it is urgent* that pedestrians stay on the sidewalk.
c.     I don't doubt* thata pedestrian can get places faster    than a  car in downtown traffic.
3.         glance
3. نگاه گذرا،نگاه سریعی کردن ،
a.    The observant* driver glanced at the accident at the side of the road.
b.    I took one glance at the wretched* animal and turned away.
c.         Thompson identified* the burglar after a glance  at the photograph in the police station.
4.     budget
4.حساب،بودجه، هزینه
a.    We had to decrease* the budget this year because our club is broke.
b.     The prominent* executive presented her budget to the Board of
Directors.

c.     When my mother draws up her budget for the week, she sets aside a goodly sum for nourishing* food.
5.    nimble
5.فرز،چالاک، فعال
a.    Although Dusty was a miniature* poodle, he was nimble  enough to fight bigger dogs.
b.     The nimble policeman leaped over the fence to pursue* the car thief.
c.    At his press conference, the Commissioner was quite nimble  in avoiding* the difficult questions.
6.    manipulate
6.خوب، دست بردن
a.    Scientists must know how to manipulate their microscopes.*
b.     While Mr. Baird manipulated the puppets, Fran spoke to the audience.
c.    The wounded pilot manipulated the radio dial until he made contact.
7.    reckless
7.بی باک،بی فکر، بی احتیاط 
a.     We must  not ignore* reckless drivers; we must take them off the road.
b.     After    breaking his hand fighting recklessly, Arthur decided to be more cautious* in the future.
c.    The reckless  smoker ignited* the entire forest.
8.    horrid
8.وحشتناک، ترسناک، زشت
a.    Janey avoided* staring at the horrid man's face.
b.     It is simply horrid the way cars pollute* the air we breathe.
c.    When Mary was good, she was very good, but when she was bad, she was horrid.
9.    rave
9.دادو بیداد کردن، عربده سر دادن
a.    Shortly after taking the drug, the addict* began to rave and foam at the mouth.
b.    Speedy raved that his car had the capacity* to reach 120 miles per hour.
c.     Sadie was confident* that Mr. Stebbe would rave about her essay
10.     economical
10.مقتصد، صرفه جو،
a.     Ifind it economical to shop in the large supermarkets.
b.     Marissa was praised for her economical management of the budget.*
c.     The President made Congress aware* of the need to be more economical.
11.    lubricate
11. روغن زدن، گریس کاری کردن
a.     The bulky* wheels of a railroad train must be lubricated each week.
b.    A large quantity* of grease is needed to lubricate an airplane engine.
c.     When a watch is lubricated, it keeps more accurate* time.
12.     ingenious
12.باهوش، مبتکر، مخترع
a.     Bernie devised* an ingenious plan to cheat on his income tax.
b.     Rube  Goldberg was a  journalist*  who  won  fame     for  his     ingenious inventions.
c.     The master spy had an ingenious way of passing secrets to the agent.

Lesson 19
1.    harvest
1.درو،برداشت،زمان برداشت،
a.    This year's harvest was adequate* to feed all our people.
b.     The farmer decided to expand* his fields so that he would get a bigger harvest.
c.     If the harvest is poor, there is always the possibility of a famine.*
2.     abundant
2.بسیار،زیاد،وافر
a.    It is urgent* that the hospital have an abundant supply of blood.
b.    An abundant harvest* was predicted* by the Secretary of Agriculture.
c.     In recent* years an abundant number of complaints have disturbed the telephone company.
3.     uneasy
3.اشفته، مضطرب، ناراحت
a.     Mrs. Spinner was uneasy  about letting her son play in the vicinity* of the railroad tracks.
b.    The treasurer was uneasy about the company's budget.*
c.    Arnold felt    uneasy  about    the    meeting even though he tried to act in a casual* manner.
4.     calculate
4.براورد کردن، محاسبه کردن،حساب کردن
a.    The cook had to calculate the number of diners to see whether he could decrease* his order for meat.
b.     In order to see how expensive* the car was, the buyer calculated the tax and other charges
c.     I used an abacus to calculate my average.
5.     absorb
5.جلب کردن،مجذوب کردن،جذب کردن
a.     The sponge absorbed the beer which had leaked from the keg.*
b.     Our bodies must absorb those things which will nourish* them.
c.     I became absorbed in what the teacher was saying and did not hear the bell ring.
6.     estimate
6.براورد کردن تخمین زدن،ارزیابی کردن
a.     A.J. Foyt estimated that the auto race would commence* at nine o'clock.
b.     Itry to avoid* making estimates on things I know nothing about.
c.      In your estimate, who will be victorious* in this conflict?*
7.     morsel
7.لقمه،تکه،ریزه
a.     When Reynaldo went into the restaurant, he pledged* to eat every morsel on his plate.
b.     Suzanne was reluctant* to try even a morsel of the lobster.
c.     If you had a morsel of intelligence, you would be uneasy,* too.
8.     quota
8.قسمت،سهمیه، سهم 
a.     The company revealed* a quota of jobs reserved for college students.
b.     There was a quota  placed on the number of people who could migrate* here from China.
c.     Lieutenant  Dugan doubted* that a quota had been placed on the number of parking tickets each policeofficer was supposed to give out.
9.    threat
9.تهدید؛ هشدار،
a.     There is always the horrid* threat that my job will be abolished.* b.      It is absurd* to think that a tiny bug could be a threat to a person.
c.      You can be arrested for making a threat  against someone's life.
10.     ban
10.ممنوع کردن،تحریم کردن،
a.     The group unanimously* voted to ban all people who were under six feet.
b.     Health  officials  are  trying  to expand*  their field in order to ban cigarette advertising from newspapers  and magazines.
c.     Iwant to ban all outsiders from our discussion on security.*
11.     panic
11.هراس،ترس، ترسیدن
a.     The leader of the lost group appealed* to them not to panic.
b.     When the danger was exaggerated,* a few people started to panic.
c.     The source* of panic in the crowd was a man with a gun.
12.    appropriate
12.شایسته، سزاوار، بجا
a.     At an appropriate time, the chief promised  to reveal* his plan.
b.     The lawn was an appropriate setting for Eileen's wedding.
c.     After some appropriate prayers, the dinner was served.
Lesson 20
1.    emerge
1.بیرون امدن،اشکار شدن
a.     When the fight was over, the underdog* emerged the winner.
b.     You have to be nimble* to emerge from the narrow opening in five seconds.
c.     What emerged from the bottle  was a blend*  of fruit juices.
2.    jagged
2.ناهموار، دندانه دندانه، تیز
a.     Being reckless,* Rudy didn't watch out for the jagged steel.
b.     It's an enormous*  job to smooth the jagged edge of a fence.
c.     Leslie's  hair was so jagged it was scarcely*  possible  to tell that it had just been cut.
3.     linger
3.معطل کردن، باقی ماندن، دیر رفتن
a.    The odor didn't vanish* but lingered on for weeks.
b.     Some traditions* linger on long after they have lost their meanings.
c.     After     the     campus*     closed  for     the  summer,  some  students  lingered on, reluctant* to go home.
4.     ambush
4.دانم، کمین ، حمله
a.     The ambush became  a tragedy*  for those who attempted  it because they were all killed.
b.     General Taylor raved* about the ingenious* ambush he planned.
c.     The troops lay in ambush in the dense*  woods all through the night.
5.     crafty
5.زیرک، موذی، مکار،زرنگ
a.     His crafty mind prepared a comprehensive*plan to defraud* his
partners.
b.     Leo didn't use  brutal*  strength  against  his  opponents,*  but  he  used  his crafty bag of tricks to beat them.
c.     The Indians did not fall for the crafty ambush.*

6.     defiant
6.معترضانه، جسور، مترد
a.     "I refuse to be manipulated:'* the defiant  young woman told her father.
b.     Professor Carlyle was defiant of any attempt to disprove his theory.*
c.     Defiant of everyone, the addict* refused to be helped.
7.     vigor
7.توان، نیرو، قدرت 
a.     Having a great deal of vigor, Jason was able to excel* in all sports.
b.    Tom Thumb made up for size by having more vigor than most people.
c.     Putting  all her     vigor  into  the  argument,  Patsy  persuaded*  me to let her drive.
8.    perish
8.تلف شدن ،نابود شدن، ازبین رفتن
a.     Unless the plant gets water for its roots to absorb,* it will perish.
b.     Custer and all his men perished at the Little Big Horn.
c.     We are trying  to make  sure  that  democracy  will never  perish from     this earth.
9.    fragile
9.ضعیف ، متزلزل، ظریف
a.     The expensive* glassware is very fragile.
b.     Things made out of plywood have a tendency* to be fragile.
c.     On the box was a label which read, "Fragile! Handle with care!"
10.     captive
10.محبوس ،دلباخته، اسیر، زندانی
a.     The major was grateful*  to be released  after having been held captive for two years.
b.     Until the sheriff got them out, the two boys were held captive in the barn.
c.     Placido Domingo can hold an audience captive with his marvelous sing- ing  voice.
11.     prosper
11.شکوفا شدن، رونق داشتن ، موفق شدن
a.    Howard    Hughes    owned    numerous*    businesses    and    most    of    them
prospered.
b.     No one should prosper from the misfortunes* of his or her friends.
c.     The annual* report showed that the new business was prospering.
12.    devour
12.بلعیدن ،با ولع خوردن
a.    It was a horrid* sight to see the lion devour the lamb.
b.     The animal doctor was pleased to see the terrier devour the dog food.
c.     My aunt devours four or five mystery books each week.
Lesson 21
1.    plea
1.ادعا ،درخواست ، استدعا
a.     The employees* turned in a plea to their boss for higher pay.
b.     The President's plea to release the captives* was denied by the enemy.
c.     In court today ,the judge consented* to the lawyer's    plea     for    a light sentence.
2.     weary
2.بیزار ،خسته ،فرسوده
a.     I am weary of debating* the same topic* all day.
b.     The farmer grew weary  of bringing in the harvest* every year for the past forty summers.
c.     Let me rest my weary bones here before the march commences.*
3.     collide
3.برخورد کردن ،بهم خوردن ،تصادف کردن 
a.     When the two autos collided, the people    in the fragile*smaller car perished.*
b.    Committees are explorin,g* ways of keeping cars from colliding.
c.    In my estimate* the two bicycles collided at five o'clock.
4.     confirm
4.اثبات کردن ،نشان دادن ،تایید کردن
a.    The way Victor talked back to his mother confirmed that he was defiant.*
b.     A probe* of the criminal's background confirmed that he had been in jail numerous* times.
c.     Years of research confirmed the theory* that smoking is harmful.
5.     verify
5.اثبات کردن ، صحه گذاشتن ،رسیدگی کردن
a.    A "yes man" is an employee* who will verify  everything the boss says.
b.      I was there as a witness to verify the charges against the bus driver.
c.     The data* I turned in were verified by the clerks in our office.
6.     anticipate
6.منتظر بودن ؛ انتظار داشتن
a.    We anticipate a panic* if the news is revealed* to the public.
b.     Harriet anticipated the approach* of the mailman with fright.
c.    With his weird* powers, Lonnie was able to anticipate the ringing of the telephone.
7.     dilemma
7.تنگنا، دوراهی ،معتضل
a.    It is sensible not to panic* in the face of a dilemma.
b.     Lottie faced the dilemma of whether to approve of the operation or not.
c.     In "The Lady or    the Tiger," the hero had the dilemma of which door to open.
8.     detour
8.مسیر انحرافی، راه مستقیم ،جاده فرعی
a.    Pop was uneasy* about taking the detour tn this strange town.
b.     In order to evade* city traffic, Anthony took a detour.
c.    The detour took us ten miles off our course.
9.    merit
9.امتیاز ،حسن ،ارزش ،مزیت 
a.    There is little merit in lying to those you love.
b.     My brother was promoted because of merit, not because of friendship.
c.     Do you think the tradition* of marriage has any merit?
10.    transmit
10.انتقال ، ارسال کردن ،فرستادن
a.     Garcia's message was transmitted to the appropriate* people.
b.     Scientists can now transmit  messages from space vessels* to earth.
c.     Our local radio station does not transmit broadcasts after midnight.

11.     relieve
11.تسلی دادن ، فرو نشاندن ، ازمیان بردن
a.    The pills relieved the pain from the wound I received in the conflict.*
b.     A majority* of the population* wanted to relieve the mayor of his duty.
c.    The peace agreement relieved us of the threat* of an attack.
12.    baffle
12.مات ومبهوت ، سردرگم ، متحیر
a.    How so mediocre* a player earned so much money baffled me.
b.     The topic* of relativity is a baffling one.
c.     Sherlock Holmes would undoubtedly* have been baffled by the way the crime was committed.




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